Research activities

Research interests

Internet of Things (IoT)

Wireless Sensor Networks

Mobile Ad hoc NETworks

Distributed data management

Peer-to-Peer Systems

Routing and Data replication

Grid and Cloud computing

A distributed system is generally defined as a collection of ”entities” software running on computers connected by a communication network and cooperating to perform a task. The field of distributed systems is constantly evolving and can be applied today in very different areas involving a variety of computing devices from the supercomputer to the sensor, via terminals such as laptops and ”Smartphones”. The networks connecting them are also varied and can range from fieldbus to high speed fixed network via wireless local networks. It is therefore not surprising that we find distributed applications as diverse as air traffic control, peer-to-peer data exchange systems, email and grid computing. Distributed systems take an ever more important in today’s world, particularly with the advent of the Internet. The concept of distribution, it is quite old, has no equivalent in computer only recently. Indeed, distribute a task is meaningful only if the different ’entities’ can communicate. It was therefore not until the development of networks (local and large-scale Internet type) to the concept of ’distributed system’ ’is clearly defined and studied. Initially, the architecture used was centralized control on the client-server model. The recent development of massively distributed networks requires algorithm design on a fully distributed model with no centralized control. However, designing a fully distributed protocol is more difficult than giving a solution using centralized control, because it must manage synchronization between the various entities, and, in general, the possible failure of part of the system.

Parallel computing is now used in all areas, simulations of mechanical systems or weather prediction to databases, video on demand servers and search engines such as Google. From an architectural standpoint, parallel computers have evolved from large homogeneous machines PC assemblies (where groups of processors share a memory, these groups being interconnected by fast networks). However, the increasing need for calculation and storage capacity caused the aggregation of resources via local area networks (LAN) or even on a large scale (WAN). Recent advances in networking technology have enabled the use of highly distributed platforms as a single parallel resource, which was called metacomputing or, more recently, the calculation on the grid. Although a huge research effort has recently been made in this area, we believe that many projects have failed to study fundamental problems such as the complexity of problems and algorithms, or as the issue of scheduling. Furthermore, the theoretical results are rarely validated platforms (software) existing. The widespread use of distributed heterogeneous platforms poses two major challenges: the development of environments that facilitate their use (transparent), and the definition and evaluation of new algorithmic approaches for applications that exploit them. In this issue, we focus on the following research questions:

  • algorithms and scheduling strategies for distributed heterogeneous platforms,
  • the environments and tools required to deploy these platforms in client-server mode, applications.

The main areas that form part of our work is autonomic computing, deployment, middleware and grids. More specifically, ways to make adaptive deployment of a middleware that runs on a dynamic environment (changes in the parameters of the middleware and / or those resources). To do this we must propose algorithms / strategies / heuristics able to take the ”right” decisions whenever a situation that requires an adaptation of deployment is detected. These algorithms and strategies, however, must be based on a body of knowledge to make decisions. These skills include the middleware, the target infrastructure, System running, etc. Since it is difficult to work directly on real systems, we are led to use of those models it. Thus, we proposed: (i) a resource model, (ii) a model of hierarchical middleware and (iii) deployment model.

Technological advances and the ever increasing power of embedded systems have opened new paths and research issues in order to offer innovative services in the wireless communication field. In this context, the ad hoc system of mobile sensors is particularly promising. These electronic components, not expensive to buy can capture certain information from its environment, such as odor, heat sources, electromagnetic waves etc. There are thus several types of sensors: pressure sensor, light sensor, biosensor, chemical sensor, acceleration sensor, seismic sensors etc. The sensors can therefore assess: the distance to an object, directions and direction of a moving object, the ambient temperature, chemical products, the intensity of light, vibration, seismic intensity, sound intensity. The sensors may move to support certain applications, such as target detection, intensive calculations while maintaining them in wireless communications, that allow them to cooperate. Thus an ad hoc wireless network of mobile sensors is a distributed system without central control unit or coordination. They work together to find information they send by multi jumps to a center located outside their environment. A large number of sensors deployed in an environment must be able to self-organize. The application issues sensors are enormous. Indeed, the sensors can lead to several practical applications such as:

  • habitat monitoring
  • environmental monitoring (which could alert the fire department of a fire starting)
  • motion detection (border surveillance, animal reserve)
  • Road traffic control
  • embedded systems (temperature measurements, pressure and noise in an airplane)
  • detection chemicals, etc.

L’objectif principal est la collecte d’un ensemble de paramètres de l’environnement immédiat des capteurs, tels que la température ou la pression atmosphérique, afin de les acheminer vers des points de traitement (puits de données ou Sink, une station souvent plus éloignée). Par leur réalisme et leur apport concret, les réseaux de capteurs sans fil ont su se démarquer de leur origine ad hoc et attirer un nombre croissant d’industriels et d’organisations civiles où la surveillance et la reconnaissance de phénomènes physiques restent une priorité. La surveillance environnementale (agriculture, eaux, incendies de forêt, pollutions, . . .), médicale (personnes âgées, veille sanitaire dans les troupeaux, . . .), la gestion de crises (séismes, inondations, éruptions volcaniques, glissements de terrains, …), la surveillance de processus et/ou de sites industriels, la domotique, tels sont quelques exemples d’une panoplie vaste et variée d’applications potentielles offertes par les réseaux de capteurs.
So it exudes several research issues such as topology (network partitioning and maintenance of mobility), coordination and communication, mobility models, operational models, localization and target tracking, energy conservation, tolerance mechanisms fault during maintenance clusters) and especially the security of communications and data (Secure multi casting, etc.).

The emergence of small cameras and CMOS MEMS microphones at cost and reduced power, contributed to the development of a new generation of sensors incorporating aspects of multimedia (image, audio, video). Coupled with the flexibility of wireless sensor networks, this media stream intake offers new perspectives of potential applications where the collection of visual and / or acoustic information brings a certain added value: crisis management, intrusion detection , search and rescue operations, counting, environmental monitoring, smart city, tracking / tracking of objects by vision, etc. This capture mode also helps to strengthen the current surveillance applications by a particular perception of phenomena in hostile areas and / or difficult to access. For example the deployment of such a system in a bird nests environment would allow a birdwatcher to observe and study, without human intervention, behavior. This technology allows the transmission of multimedia streams in WSNs, is known as the network patronage of wireless multimedia sensors (Wireless Multimedia Sensor Net- work WMSN or in English). However, the introduction of multimedia aspects for monitoring with a wireless sensor network requires significant efforts to develop appropriate control mechanisms, and at all levels of protocol layers.

Improving lifetime is an important issue that is needed when deploying wireless sensor networks. Indeed, these networks are made by autonomous sensors battery powered it difficult to recharge or replace. The challenge is therefore to ensure the functioning of these systems for several years without any major external intervention. To maximize the life of the wireless sensor networks, we first explored the possibility of introducing several mobile wells. We have proposed two strategies. The first determines the optimal positions on a small scale network and the second based on a heuristic, ensures scalability. We studied the protocol, extended its capabilities to manage mobile wells and proposed a mobility strategy adapted well to extend the life of the network. The main objective of this work is to use redundant nodes in order to optimize energy consumption which also amounts to optimize the lifetime of the network. Initially, propose and implement a centralized mechanism for the distribution of the population of sensors spanning several subsets. Then introduce modules for activation of subassemblies and for the measurement of network coverage (we choose random points considered targets to be monitored).

Research projects

  • Scientific and technical director at the Gaston Berger University, of the European Research Project (ID:101059232 - Call: HORIZON-CL6-2021-FARM2FORK-01): URBANE: One Health approaches to support agroecological transformation of peri-urban farming. Projet financé à hauteur de 5,015,233.75 €. 01-07-2022/30-06-2022.
  • Scientific and Technical Director at the University Gaston Berger, of the European Research Project (ID: 780229 - H2020-ICT-2017-1) : WAZIHUB: Accelerating Open IoT and Big Data Innovation in Africa. Projet financé à hauteur de 2,998,606. 88 €. 01-05-2018/31-07-2021.
  • Scientific and Technical Director at the University Gaston Berger, of the European Research Project (ID: 687607 – H2020-ICT-2015) : WAZIUP: Open Innovation Platform for IoT-Big Data in Sub-Sahara Africa. Projet financé à hauteur de 2,799,662. 50 €. 01-02-2016/31-01-2019.
  • Research project leader of Réseaux de capteurs sans fil dans la lutte contre les criquets ravageurs. Projet de recherche financé par le FIRST (Fond d’Impulsion de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique). Financement de 30,000 €. 01-06-2013/31-05-2017.
  • Member of the research project: Réseaux de capteurs sans fil et technologie RFID contre le vol de bétail. Projet de recherche financé par le FIRST (Fond d’Impulsion de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique). Financement de 25,000 €. 12-05-2014/12-05-2016.
  • Project partner: Implementation of socio-economic infrastructure for distributed development approach knowledge. Funding Unesco-HP: US Dollar 45,000 on 2010–2012 and AUF 49,600 € on 2012–2013.
  • Research project leader of Réseaux de capteurs sans fil pour une agriculture de précision et la sécurité alimentaire. . Project submitted to the FIRST (Fond d’Impulsion de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique) program funding 30,000 €.

AbstractThe quest to provide food for the world’s growing population has compelled humankind to encroach on the ecosystem with untoward consequences. Industrial agriculture has failed to feed the world adequately while using up too many of its resources, destroying wetlands & wildlife habitats, increasing the risk of infestation, plagues, and pesticide- resistant pests. The contribution of urban fringe farmers to feeding the teeming populations of cities is often overlooked in the context of sophisticated global supply chains. Today more than half of the planet’s inhabitants live in cities and this is projected to increase. The world-wide migration of rural people to cities is particularly prominent in West Africa. This trend leads to the increased practicing of peri-urban agriculture, supported by: a) the lack of formal jobs and as a means of adding up to household income in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), b) the young generations of farmers are usually not willing to live in remote areas where traditionally farming occurred, c) initial stages of agriculture intensification in LMIC usually involves concentration of production in peri-urban areas.

Key challenge: Even though intensified peri-urban farming has significant advantages of increasing the resilience of food systems, reducing poverty (Sustainable Development Goal-1) and ensuring nutrition security (SDG-2), it also introduces concerns about zoonotic diseases in livestock, sanitary issues from cultivation & livestock-keeping (SDG- 3) and local environmental degradation from use of synthetic agricultural inputs, pollution & deforestation, risks from pesticides residues, antimicrobial resistance and more. Especially in LMIC, the intensification of food systems, as they transition from subsistence to market-oriented production, is typically associated with human health risks.

URBANE is addressing this challenge of sustainable agriculture for food nutrition security, applying a One Health approach for tackling issues related to the application & intensification of peri-urban agriculture, as well as providing the necessary framework for its sustainable & safe application in different contexts. To achieve this, the project will be built around the principles of agroecology. Agroecology, using nature-based solutions encompasses all elements to restore degraded environments, while having significant socioeconomic benefits to ensure resilient & safe food protecting human health. URBANE is building on the extensive experience in agroecology of its partners whilst exploiting friendly tools & methods for measuring the progress & impact of the agroecological transition of farming. The URBANE approach will be demonstrated through 6 case studies in Africa (Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal, Morocco, Benin, Burkina-Faso), while its transferability in other regions will also be studied and facilitated through specific tools. In line with agroecology principles, URBANE will be working in close collaboration with farmers, building on local knowledge, supported by new technologies and best practices applied in European regions where agroecology is already applied in intensified, market-oriented production fields. Policy making (recommendations) is also part of the project to support wider adoption. New/ adapted business models will also be worked out for the URBANE case studies, that will act as lighthouse examples of how such business models can be – with suitable local adaptations informed by local specificities.

Abstract : WAZIHUB (in Swahili for Open-Hub) is an innovation project for Africa aiming to create an OpenHUB of IoT and Big data cutting-edge and African grade solutions, co-designed by African people. The vision of WAZIHUB is to exploit IoT potential and share IoT Technologies best-practices through the involvement of innovation communities and stakeholder (e.g. young entrepreneur (including woman), startup, developer, innovation Hub) from local district, regional, national and African-wide. The project aims to enable the creation of Open Hubs throughout Africa where IoT technology solutions can then be adapted to match local service needs. The project goal is to iterate and extract value from spining-off value-added IoT innovative services (e.g. monitoring, controlling, data analytic) based on the technologies developed in WAZIUP and FiWARE.

WAZIUP is a technology-driven EU-Africa project developing a fully open source (http://www.github.com/waziup) IoT end-to-end (sensors, networking and software) platform (www.waziup.io platform website), specialized to meet African needs in terms of cost, energy, internet connectivity and simplicity. The WAZIUP platform is developed using FIWARE Generic enablers.

WAZIHUB target is to support, at large-scale, innovative users and usage of the above mentioned technologies, with a goal towards the sustainability and wider-impact of the proposed solutions. Sustainability is one of the main concerns of innovation projects therefore the consortium will jointly target finding more and more users around the WAZIHUB and offer a value to them based on their requirements, enabling them to easily tailor existing solutions to their needs.

In order to reach the WAZIHUB vision, the project addresses the following issues:

  • Accessibility of the technology promoting the concept of a “smart village” reference model: Local accessibility of the fine-grained, affordable, simple to use IoT-Cloud solutions/development- kits for rapid prototyping and testing ideas and fostering innovation ;
  • Accessibility of process for start-up creation and acceleration: Through engagement of local innovation hubs, the creation of new IoT business spin-offs and start-ups and acceleration process is to be applied in a local and shared in an African-wide IoT WAZIHUB ecosystem (e.g. what steps and paths to be followed when, with what technology, for what purpose) ;
  • Accessibility of business models and partnership for sustainability and growth-hacking: Enabling stakeholders to more easily catalyse around valid, innovative (and sometimes tested) propositions; WAZIHUB will show how to replicate the successful involvement of stakeholders around innovative services (e.g. what business model, funding, partnerships, first market replication).

WAZIHUB also plans to expand the reach and use of WAZIUP technology to Southeast and Southern Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, South-Africa, Mozambique) and at the same time to strengthen the activities and the strategic partnership with West Africa (Senegal and Ghana).

General objectives : The Internet of Things is not just a story for the industrialized countries, but it is rather equality relevant for developing countries in Africa. The IoT and big data are driving improvements to human economic conditions and wellbeing in healthcare, water, agriculture, natural resource management, resiliency to climate change and energy.

From our experience in WAZIUP over the past few years, we have seen a lot of interests and early feedback on IoT from African communities and stakeholders. It is clear that the continent is getting ready to adapt IoT in their daily lives and business operations. At the same time, IoT activities are also increasing in different forms through local communities, IoT developer training by Swahili Box in Kenya, e-toll system in South Africa by SANRAL, Smart Africa’s Transform Africa summit and The Internet of Things Africa Summit and Smart Expo.

Different stakeholders are getting involved in active IoT projects on the ground in Africa. These stakeholders include industry members, universities, NGOs, and tech start-ups, each contributing different strengths from capacity building to innovation. Big industries players with experience in IoT like IBM, SAP, Google, Nestle, have established presence in Africa as well.

From technical point of view, the IoT solutions developed by Industrial countries are either too generic or focusing only on industrial market needs. In Africa, there is a need for specialized solutions which addresses fundamental problems like internet and network connectivity, cost of solutions, power requirements, simplicity in terms of deployment and operation, robustness from environment threat, and user-centric design for notification (SMSs, voice, WhatsApp and Facebook) and interaction.

Through our interaction with the average engineers and developers in Africa, they are often good in mobile and web application development but lack the experience, knowledge and capacity on the IoT core technology (e.g. data management, IoT backend, IoT connectivity, data analytic, etc.) to develop a competitive IoT solutions. They often require advanced training so they can develop these kind of solutions.

The internet connection is the major drawback. As a result, developers and engineers have to think of options for IoT without internet. For large-scale systems including hundreds of thousands of sensors, devices and/or readers, high reliability levels are likely to prove important. Cultural context on the ground also matters, and it should be taken into account, along with technical considerations.

One of the main sources of locally developed applications and innovation is the Techno hubs that are springing up across Africa. With the rise of Fablab, makerspace and tech hubs, young and talented Africans are now coming together to collaborate and to use open source tools to develop and prototype their ideas.

Most tech hub members start working on their ideas while in the University. It is in the university that most informal hubs and spaces are created. You will usually find student meeting to work on ideas from class or even final year project. It is interesting to note that some of these ideas grow into start-ups once there is the conducive environment to nurture and support them.

From our experience, one of the key features of the African digital innovation renaissance is that, it is increasingly homegrown. They have the vision to redesign the solutions which already exist in developed market, by Africans for the African market, providing homegrown cost-effective alternatives. In addition, entrepreneurs want to create solutions that are appropriate for their challenges and needs like Kenya’s seamless payment system, M-PESA and Brick.

What is unfolding is a virtuoso system with a “started in Africa” mindset that could potentially remake what Africans buy. This is especially exciting because it empowers people to use their local expertise, know-how and hands-on skills to solve problems that exist in their daily lives. WOELAB is an example of such a Fablab in Lome, Togo (partner of WAZIUP) that inspires makers to use old and waste electronic part to create working products such as locally made 3D printers.

While it is very early to assess the impact, it is already clear that these makers and innovation hub offer a platform for a new economic system that taps into the brainpower of Africans to seed shared prosperity. The problems to solve in the continent are plentiful- clean water, energy, health, and food processing. In addition, there are significant challenges for the African makers, getting people to take them seriously including the government and even their competitor. Also, these hubs need more innovation business model and revenue generation steam. Hence the sustainable uptake of the results and innovation services within the countries became a major issue. This is valid of all innovation project, hub as well as start-up.

Most of the African start-up teams cannot afford to pay someone to develop the competitive solutions for them. For African start-up one main challenges are the go-to-market, often these start-ups need small seed funding to grow and business and technical training. Most of the innovation projects have difficulties to sustain, since they often vanish after the project completion date. We also need to acknowledge that the sustainability is a long-term process. It often needs continuously (external aid) until reach the critical mass and viability, often additional funding, the need to develop and build on local talent, understanding the behavioral response of users and stakeholder ecosystem, innovation partnership, offer clear benefits to users.

Maximizing the benefits of the IoT is likely to require more coordinated action across all sectors, SMEs and industries, telecom operator, ICT regulators, funding agencies, financial agencies, innovation stakeholders working closely with their counterparts in data protection and competition, but also with government and policy makers.

Given the high pervasiveness of the IoT’s impact, it is vital that as more countries introduce policy frameworks, they take into account the various factors and implications of the IoT across different sectors. When all stakeholders are included in active dialogue, the IoT represents a promising opportunity for more coherent policy-making and implementation.

IoT projects require to setup up innovation partnership and risk sharing business model; they also need a local IoT ecosystem at the same time connected with national and international/European IoT ecosystem.

Abstract : The WAZIUP project, namely the Open Innovation Platform for IoT-Big Data in Sub-Saharan Africa is a collaborative research project using cutting edge technology applying IoT and Big Data to improve the working conditions in the rural ecosystem of Sub-Saharan Africa. First, WAZIUP operates by involving farmers and breeders in order to define the platform specifications in focused validation cases. Second, while tackling challenges which are specific to the rural ecosystem, it also engages the flourishing ICT ecosystem in those countries by fostering new tools and good practices, entrepreneurship and start-ups. Aimed at boosting the ICT sector, WAZIUP proposes solutions aiming at long term sustainability.

The consortium of WAZIUP involves 7 partners from 4 African countries and partners from 5 EU countries combining business developers, technology experts and local Africa companies operating in agriculture and ICT. The project involves also regional hubs with the aim to promote the results to the widest base in the region.

General objectives : WAZIUP is a H2020 international cooperation action. The project is driven by a consortium of 5 EU partners and of 7 partners from 4 sub-Saharan African countries. Furthermore, it has support from multiple African stakeholders with the aim of defining new innovation space to advance the African Rural Economy. It will do so by involving end-users communities in the loop, namely rural African communities of selected pilots, and by involving relevant public bodies in the project development. WAZIUP will accelerate innovation in Africa by coupling with current EU innovation in the sector of IoT and Big Data: this EU technology will be specialized to generate African cost effective technologies with an eye to preparing the playground to the future technological waves by solving concrete current needs. WAZIUP will deliver a communication and big data application platform and generate locally the know how by training by use case and examples. The use of standards will help to create an interoperable platform, fully open source, oriented to radically new paradigms for innovative application/services delivery. WAZIUP is driven by the following objectives:

  • Empower the African Rural Economy. Develop new technological enablers to empower the African rural economy now threatened by the concurrent action of rapid urbanization and of climate change. WAZIUP technologies can support the necessary services and infrastructures to launch agriculture and breeding on a new scale;
  • Serve the Wealth Growth of Rural Communities. Create innovation across a dated agribusiness/agriculture/rural sector: increasing agriculture’s value and by adding to sub-saharan countries economical growth, such innovation contributes towards poverty reduction of communities living in the rural areas;
  • Innovate Agro-Industry Processes. Increase efficiency of production and processing in small-scale agro- industry SMEs, catalyze better yields and advance agribusiness;
  • Improve work conditions: WAZIUP technology aims at improving work and living quality by affordable and available specific IoT services tailored for African rural communities;
  • Tailored IoT and Big-data Technology. Offer smart sensor and data-driven applications and services addressing the end-users needs and requirements (understanding users requirements and preference delivering towards more personalized and easy users interfaces and applications)
  • Value-added cost and energy efficiency. IoT application and services based on WAZIUP open IoT-Big data platform will focus on ease of maintenance and low cost of solutions;
  • Lower Entry Level. Provide to application developers a mature platform, as well as tools and standards that are inexpensive, easy and relevant.

In order to achieve the above aims, a strong dissemination and exploitation effort of the project will be dedicated to a) strengthening linkages of end-users with industries, b) engage innovation space and living labs to accelerate innovation coaching/training/start-up activities (e.g., community-driven development paradigms), c) promote value- addition to business outputs, d) challenge the value-chain of African agribusiness through technology for value increase.

The proposed solutions will be tested for a set of real-life use cases covering several countries. At higher level, WAZIUP will implement a regional innovation platform, where SMEs could continue to develop/plug-in solutions using the technical elements and the open data provided in the project. The ultimate target is to create large African industries, SMEs ecosystem, and induce a network- effect.

The above objectives require tackling several challenges which we enlist below:

  • Challenge 1: Innovative design of the IoT platform for the Rural Ecosystem. Low-cost, generic building blocks for maximum adaptation to end-applications in the context of the rural economy in developing countries.
  • Challenge 2: Network Management. Facilitate IoT communication and network deployment. Lower cost solutions compared to state of the art technology: privilege price and single hop dedicated communication networks, energy autonomous, with low maintenance costs and long lasting operations.
  • Challenge 3: Long distance. Dynamic management of long range connectivity (e.g., cope with network & service fluctuations), provide devices identification, abstraction/virtualization of devices, communication and network resources optimization
  • Challenge 4: Big-data. Exploit the potential of big-data applications in the specific rural context.

 

Pests pose a significant threat to agriculture and environmental health in many parts of the world. In particular, in sub-Saharan West Africa, locust invasions do not spare any crops. The losses are then estimated at tens of thousands of tons of crop per day. Also the material, human and environmental damage is considerable. The control of these insect pests is therefore a very important issue for food security in these African countries, which are labelled poor and have difficulty ensuring food self-sufficiency. Current pest control methods are based on the analysis of data acquired in gregarious areas via satellites and weather stations, often deployed in insufficient numbers. Scientific advances and technological innovations in wireless communication systems on the one hand and sensors on the other hand over the last decade can help to solve the problems that are jeopardizing the agricultural take-off of the countries concerned.

The objective of this project is to contribute to the development of instrumentation, monitoring and warning strategies and methods to improve traditional pest control methods. To this end, a system of research collaboration on these issues, bringing together several skills distributed among UFRs, has been set up.

Protecting crops and conserving crops is one of man's major concerns as agriculture becomes a means of subsistence for him. The evolution of communities has subsequently amplified, among other things, the natural phenomena of competition between humans and other consuming living beings. The recent intensification of agricultural production systems through the near application of monoculture and the use of new high-yielding varieties to increase rents, favours the selection of the most suitable pests and diseases for increasingly artificial conditions, while at the same time, the spread of chemical control is causing resistance phenomena and also harmful repercussions for consumers (accumulation of pesticide residues in the body). In addition, the opening of the market and the liberalization of imports of seeds and plants that we are currently witnessing, favours the unfortunate introductions of new parasites and pests. Desert locusts are a major threat to agriculture in many parts of the world.

Several international and scientific organizations are mobilized to monitor the migration of these insects and provide assistance to countries affected by this scourge. Monitoring systems are already in place, but most of them are manual.

Then, an alert is sent for the deployment of survey teams from national locust control centres in the field to count the locust population and send a report. The locust population in an area helps to prevent the risk of invasion.

There is a problem in the data acquisition method which is manual and the reliability of the information received via satellites and weather stations depends on factors such as rainfall and vegetation and also some areas are difficult to access.

Scientific advances and technological innovations in wireless communication systems on the one hand and sensors on the other hand over the last decade can help to solve the problems that are jeopardizing the agricultural take-off of the countries concerned.

Wireless sensor networks are a new class of distributed systems that are an integral part of the physical space in which they are deployed. They cover a wide range of applications from environmental protection to military applications, including medicine and home automation. These nodes are able to capture temperature, pressure, sound and collaboratively route raw data to a processing centre.

It must be said that in the past, wireless sensor networks have never been used for locust control in Senegal, and so it is a real challenge that we propose to take up.

Agriculture is the backbone of any country's economy and there is a strong correlation between agricultural growth and economic prosperity. In Senegal, the agricultural sector employs about 70% of the population, but with a share in GDP that is steadily decreasing and corresponding to less than 20%. The main factors explaining this poor performance of the Senegalese primary sector are the decrease in rainfall and the fact that this activity is still quite rudimentary. Seed quality is also a major obstacle to quality production. The new public policies put in place to boost the Senegalese economy, notably through the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), continue to give a crucial place to agriculture.
To support this dynamic, particularly for small producers, who constitute the large mass of the active population in this sector, we need to modernise our agriculture by integrating new and effective technologies that make it possible to continuously improve the productivity, profitability and sustainability of our main operating systems. Thus, we believe that wireless sensor networks, coupled with monitoring and control software, can be used as powerful tools for precision agriculture and to contribute to food security. In this project, it is a question of setting up such a system that we will use it on the one hand for irrigation management; then, we will apply it to storage management, both for seeds and crop products, to contribute to good crop preservation but also to food security.
A wireless sensor network is an ad hoc network with a large number of nodes that are micro-sensors capable of collecting and transmitting environmental data autonomously. The use of wireless sensor networks is essential for the implementation of information and control technologies in precision agriculture. We present our design of this project for such an application where sensor nodes regularly collect data from fixed locations in a field or storage space.
Irrigation procedures are based on the farmer's experience, soil properties and environmental conditions that are affected by regular changes during production. Wireless sensor networks are a solution for monitoring environmental conditions and efficient water use. In this project, an effective irrigation management system will be put in place for crops to improve yield. We will use a network of wireless sensors to obtain soil properties and environmental data on an ongoing basis. The irrigation schedule for crops is planned according to their requirements, which is based on data obtained from sensors deployed at different locations. The irrigation management system studies the data to identify deficient (poor) water locations and informs farmers about them through an alert or text message sent to the local network.
The overall objective of this research project is to propose a solution based on low-cost sensor networks to achieve precision agriculture. For this purpose, a system of research collaboration on these issues, bringing together several skills distributed among UFRs, has been set up.

L’élevage du bétail se caractérise au Sénégal par des mouvements nomades de personnes avec leur bétail sur des terrains vastes et hostiles avec une infrastructure de communication insuffisante voire inexistante. Le vol de bétail a causé des ravages et a été la principale source de conflit et d’instabilité. Aucun mécanisme adéquat n’est mis en place pour faciliter l’identification, le repérage et la récupération des animaux volés.
L’idée est d’utiliser de manière conjointe la technologie des capteurs sans fil et celle des RFID pour créer une plateforme mixte de lutte contre le vol du bétail.
Les capteurs permettent de collecter et de relayer l’information — observation de phénomènes physiques tels que la position, données biologiques, etc. — vers un site de traitement via l’Internet ou un réseau de téléphonie ou encore un réseau satellitaire.
Les capteurs sont connectés en permanence sur le réseau de téléphonie mobile pour transmettre une vue des données en temps réel, en utilisant des services SMS ou GPRS. Ces données pourront être stockées sur un Système d’Information et de Gestion permettant de localiser le bétail n’importe où à travers le territoire national ou à défaut signaler la dernière d’un troupeau donné sur le territoire pour les cas de sorties du pays. Comme alternative au réseau des opérateurs téléphoniques classiques, nous étudierons également la possibilité d’utiliser le réseau WIMAX de l’Intranet gouvernemental, qui offre une assez bonne couverture sur l’étendue du territoire, comme canal de transmission des données vers le serveur central.
Le réseau de capteurs que nous souhaitons construire à travers le Sénégal sera basé sur l’infrastructure physique de la SENELEC pour l’alimentation des nœuds capteurs et éventuellement la retransmission des données grâce à la technologie CPL. En effet, celle-ci dispose d’un important dispositif avec ses poteaux électriques à haute tension sur toute l’étendue du territoire. Le réseau de transport de la SENELEC comprend un réseau national et un réseau supranational. Le réseau national est constitué de 327,5 kms de lignes 90 kV et le réseau supranational comprend les 945 kms de la ligne 225 kV Manantali – Matam – Dagana – Sakal – Tobène.

Le principe de notre solution est le suivant :
les éleveurs vont identifier leur bétail et acquérir quelques puces RFID à mettre sur certaines bêtes de leur troupeau (il n’est pas nécessaire d’en doter à tous, mais juste un sur dix) ;
lorsqu’un vol a lieu, l’éleveur envoie un SMS à notre système pour signaler le vol en donnant la référence de son bétail ;
le système, à travers son réseau de capteur, identifie l’endroit où se trouve le troupeau en question et transmet les coordonnées GPS à la gendarmerie ou autres services compétents. Et en cas de sortie du territoire nationale, nous collecterons la dernière localisation du troupeau afin d’identifier le pays vers lequel il est dirigé grâce à des relevés GPS.
Notre plateforme ainsi mise en place permet en premier lieu de lutter efficacement contre le vol du bétail mais offre également d’énormes possibilités pour le suivi sanitaire des animaux.

Ph.D. Doctoral Students Supervision

  • Mounirah Djam-Doudou  : « Integration of light cryptographic schemes to improve trust and security in the Internet of Things ». With Prof. Aliou MOHAMADOU (University of Maroua (UMa-Cameroun)) and Prof. Ado Adamou ABBA ARI (University of Maroua (UMa-Cameroun)). 2019- 2022.
  • Gerard Kponhinto  : « Data Collection and Transmission in the Internet of Things ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis. Boursier RSIF/PASET Banque Mondiale. Avec Pr. Abdelhak Mourad GUEROUI (Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin (UVSQ-France)) et Pr. Ado Adamou ABBA ARI (Université de Maroua (UMa-Cameroun)). 2019-2022.
  • Emmanuel Effah : « Robust and Affordable Cluster-based Agricultural IoT Technology ». Department of Computer science, Faculty of Applied Sciences and technology (UFR SAT). PhD Thesis financed by PASET/RSIF (World Bank). Defended on February 11, 2022 at the Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis.
  • Ousmane Dieng : « Low-Cost Localization Methods with LPWAN IoT to Prevent Cattle rustling in Africa ». Department of Computer Science, UFR SAT. PhD Thesis funded by the European research project WAZIUP. Defended on January 19, 2021 at the Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis.
  • Babacar Diop : Management of target coverage in wireless sensor networks ». Department of Computer science, UFR SAT, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis.  PhD Thesis defended on May 03, 2019 at the University Gaston Berger of Saint-Louis Senegal.
  • Mahamadou Traore : « Cellular modeling and physical simulation: contribution to the analysis of the population dynamics of insect pests ». with Prof. Bernard Pottier University of Bretagne Occidentale - France. PhD Thesis defended on March 09, 2018 at LabSTICC UMR CNRS 3192, University of Western Brittany (Brest) - France.
  • Maurice Djibril Faye : " Self-adaptive middleware deployment on elastic platform »  with Prof. Eddy Caron Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon - France. PhD Thesis defended on November 10, 2015 at the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (LIP ENS-Lyon) - France.
  • El Hadji Serigne Mamour Diop : « Optimization of image transmission in sensor networks for critical surveillance applications » With Prof. Congduc Pham University of Pau. Thesis defended on June 17, 2014 at the University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour - France.
  • Dame Diongue : « Lifetime centralized and distributed optimization of wireless sensor networks” » Department of Computer science, UFR SAT, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis. Thesis defended on June 13, 2014 at Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis - Senegal.
  • Ndeye Massata Ndiaye : « Technical failure management for fault-tolerant computing grids » with Prof. Pierre Sens University Paris VI Lab. LIP6 - France. PhD Thesis defended on September 17, 2013 at the LIP6 Laboratory, Pierre and Marie Curie University (Paris VI - France).
  • M. Janardhan : « Some studies related to enhance the performance and network lifetime of IEEE802.15.4 for Wireless sensor networks ». Andhra University. September 2022.
  • Mrs. MARA ANNA Awa : « Coverage Control and Routing in IoT Wireless Networks ». University of Maroua (UMa – Cameroun). 2022.
  • Mrs. KENGNI NGANGMO Olga : « Towards effective lightweight security solutions for the Cloud of Things ». University of Maroua (UMa – Cameroun). 2021.
  • Bernard Ousmane SANE : « Game Theory and Virtual Machine Security in Cloud Computing: Risk Studies, Vulnerabilities and Secure and Efficient Virtual Machine Allocation Policy ». Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar – UCAD – Senegal. 2021.
  • Jeanne Roux NGO BILONG : « Contribution to information systems access control models: optimal management of role delegation ». Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP) – UCAD – Sénégal. Mai 2020.
  • Sri D. Venkata Davikara Rao : « A Framework to enhance the network lifetime by minimizing energy consumption of LAR protocol in MaNets ». Andhra University –  Inde. Août 2019.
  • Ignace Djitog : « A Model Driven Engineering Framework for Healthcare Systems Management ». African University off Sciences and Technology (AUST) – Abuja – Nigeria. 2017.
  • Adedoyin Adegoke : « Towards A Unifying Framework for Engineering Devs Distributed Simulations »African University off Sciences and Technology (AUST) – Abuja – Nigeria. 2017.
  • Ibrahima Gaye : « Analyse des réseaux sociaux :  Contributions à la détection des semences dans la maximisation de l’influence ». Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP) – UCAD – Sénégal. 2015.
  • Sri K. Sreerama Murthy : « Some Performance Studies related to IDS for Mails Clients in the context of Cryptographic Algortihms using SNORT ». Andhra University –  Inde. 2017.
  • Abdourahmane Ndiaye : « Optimisation de l’allocation de s-ressources dans les systèmes cellulaires 4G ». Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar – Sénégal. 2016.
  • Bassirou Gueye : « Services auto-adaptatifs pour les grilles pair-à-pair ».  Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne  Reims – France. 2016.
  • Samuel Ouya : « Etude de la convergence des services de Télécommunications et ses applications aux organisations virtuelles ». Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar – Sénégal. 2015.
  • Ibrahima Gueye : « Traitement des transactions à large échelle avec ajustement dynamique des ressources à la demande ». University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar - Senegal, 2015.
  • G. Sanjiv Rao : « Un modèle efficace de couverture dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil ». Andhra University –  Inde. 2015.
  • Mahamat Borgou Hassan : « Mécanismes d’estimation et d’allocation de bande passante dans les réseaux filaires IPv6 ». Université de Thiès –  Sénégal. 2015.
  • Idy Diop : « Stéganographie d’images basée sur les codes à faible densité (LDPC) ». Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP) – UCAD – Sénégal. 2015.
  • Sidy Ould Cheikh : « Routage avec qualité de service dans les réseaux maillées 802.11s  ». Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines – France. 2013.
  • Mamadou Diallo Diouf : « Etude des architectures systèmes de réseaux 40-200GPON ». Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP) – UCAD – Sénégal. 2013.
  • Abdou Khadre Diop : « Transmission faible du codestream de séquence Video Motion JPEG 2000 par estimation et compensation de mouvement ». Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP) – UCAD – Sénégal. 2013.
  • Cyrille Kesiku : « Deep learning IoT risk monitoring ». African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (AIMS). February 2021.
  • Ya Jabou Sanyang : « Comprehensive E-Healthcare System for Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital (EFSTH) ». Department of Computer science, University of The Gambia (UTG). February 2018.
  • Eze Chijioke : « Security and Privacy in Internet of Things : Models, Algorithms, and Implementations ». Department of Computer science, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja-Nigéria. (2016/2017)
  • Gbenga Adebayo : « Study and implementation of a Wireless sensor networks to manage energy in a smart home ». Department of Computer science, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja-Nigeria. (2016/2017)
  • Naby Ndiaye : « Mise en oeuvre d’une solution d’Environnement numérique de travail (ENT) Department of Computer science, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis Senegal. (2015/2016)
  • El Hadji Mamadou Dieng : « Implementation des modules PREVU PAY, PREVU HOPITAL, PREVU ENROL et PREVU SERVER du projet Conception d’un logiciel de gestion des adhérents Department of Computer science, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis Senegal. (2015/2016)
  • Ohida Sefiyat : « Implementation of New Fault Tolerance Solution in a Wireless Sensor Networks in a Multi-Channel Context ». Department of Computer science, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja-Nigéria. (2015/2016)
  • Odd Christian Maduabuchi : « Wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring applications ». Department of Computer science, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja-Nigéria. (2015/2016)
  • AfolabiBello Oluwayemis : « Quality of Service and NFC Communications Security of Applications dedicated to Dependent People ». Department of Computer science, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja-Nigéria. (2015/2016)
  • Asulba Barikisu Ahmed : « Group Mutual Exclusion in Opportunistic network ». Department of Computer science, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja-Nigéria. (2015/2016)
  • Adebajo Fisayomi Yetunde : « Detecting Denial of Service Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks ». Department of Computer science, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja-Nigéria.  Encadrement avec Dr. Dame Diongue. (2013/2014)
  • Ousmane Dieng : « Détection des dénis de service dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil Department of Computer science, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis Senegal. (2013/2014)
  • Cheikh Brahim Ould Moctar : « Développement d’une application WEB pour la gestion du loyer au CROUS ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis.  (2013/2014).
  • Serigne Fall : « Implémentation des modules grappe familiale et traçabilité des action du projet SIGCNSS (Système d’Information et de Gestion de la Caisse Nationale de Sécurité Sociale) ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis.  (2012/2013).
  • Moustapha Mbengue : « Mise en place d’un système de gestion de stock et des immobilisations pour la caisse de sécurité sociale ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis.  (2012/2013).
  • Modou Ndiaye : « Gestion de l’état civil pour la municipalité de Patte d’oie ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis.  (2012/2013).
  • Rougui Ly : « Analyse et conception d’un logiciel de gestion de performances des ressources humaines Department of Computer science, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis Senegal. (2012/2013)
  • Abdou Kane Diagne et Serigne Fall : « Plateforme de traitement de documents XML Department of Computer science, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis Senegal. (2012/2013)
  • Illiassou Adama Abdelmadjid et Khady Seck : « Mise en place d’une plateforme web de gestion, de suivi et d’évaluation des financements du FNPJ ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis. (2012/2013).
  • Ibou Ndione : « Analyse et conception d’un logiciel pour la performance des ressources humaines Department of Computer science, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis Senegal. (2012/2013)
  • Babacar Diop : Management of target coverage in wireless sensor networks ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis.  Encadrement avec Dr. Dame Diongue. (2012/2013).
  • Alimatou Dieye : « Conception d’un outil d’aide à la décision pour les encaissements de la Senelec ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis. (2011/2012).
  • Mouhamadou Bamba Kane : « Extension du routage GPSR sur réseau de capteurs sans fil pour les applications de surveillance Department of Computer science, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis Senegal. (2011/2012)
  • Papa Cheikh Cisse : « Optimisation de la durée de vie des réseaux de capteurs sans fil Department of Computer science, Gaston Berger University of Saint-Louis Senegal. (2010/2011)
  • Dame Diongue : « La Gestion de la Qualité de Service dans les réseaux maillés 802.11s ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar. (2009/2010)
  • Cire Sall Ba : « Sécurité et agrégation de données dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis. (2009/2010)
  • Abdou Aziz Ndiaye : « Conservation d’énergie dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis. (2009/2010)
  • Ahmed Wade : « Les réseaux de capteurs-actionneurs sans fil: architecture et fonctionnement ». Département Informatique, UFR SAT, Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis. (2009/2010)
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